Regulatory Affairs Interview Questions & Answers

By: Pharma Tips | Views: 40276 | Date: 20-Jan-2013

What is Regulatory Affairs?Ans-Regulatory Affairs in a Pharmaceutical industry, is a profession which acts as the interface between the pharmaceutical industry and Drug Regulatory authorities across the world. It is mainly involved in the registration of the drug products in respective countries prior to their marketing.

Regulatory Affairs Interview Question & Answer

Regulatory Affairs-Interview Questions & Answers


1.What is Regulatory Affairs?
Ans-Regulatory Affairs in a Pharmaceutical industry, is a profession which acts as the interface between the pharmaceutical industry and Drug Regulatory authorities across the world. It is mainly involved in the registration of the drug products in respective countries prior to their marketing.

2.What are the goals of Regulatory Affairs Professionals?
Ans- 
  • Protection of human health
  • Ensuring safety, efficacy and quality of drugs
  • Ensuring appropriateness and accuracy of product information

3.What are the Roles of Regulatory Affairs professionals?
Ans- 
  • Act as a liaison with regulatory agencies
  • Preparation of organized and scientifically valid NDA, ANDA,INDA ,MAA,DMF submissions
  • Ensure adherence and compliance with all the applicable cGMP, ICH, GCP, GLP guidelines, regulations and laws
  • Providing expertise and regulatory intelligence in translating regulatory requirements into practical workable plans
  • Advising the companies on regulatory aspects and climate that would affect their proposed activities
  • Apart from the above main roles, there are various other roles which Regulatory Affairs professionals play.

4.What is an Investigational New Drug (IND) application?
Ans- It is an application which is filed with FDA to get approval for legally testing an experimental drug on human subjects in the USA

5.What is a New Drug Application?
Ans- The NDA is the vehicle through which drug sponsors formally propose that the FDA approve a new pharmaceutical for sale and marketing in the U.S.  The data gathered during the animal studies and human clinical trials of an Investigational new drug become part of the NDA
In simple words, “It is an application which is filed with FDA to market a new Pharmaceutical for sale in USA”

6.What is an Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA)?
Ans- It is an application filed with FDA, for a U.S. generic drug approval for an existing licensed medication or approved drug.
In simple words, “It is an application for the approval of Generic Drugs “

7.What is a Generic Drug Product?
Ans- A generic drug product is the one that is comparable to an innovator drug product in dosage form, strength, route of administration, quality, performance characteristics and intended use. 

8.What is a DMF?
Ans- A Drug Master File (DMF) is a submission to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that may be used to provide confidential detailed information about facilities, processes, or articles used in the manufacturing, processing, packaging, and storing of one or more human drugs.
Important facts regarding DMFs
  • It is submitted to FDA to provide confidential information
  • Its submission is not required by law or regulations
  • It is neither approved nor disapproved
  • It is filed with FDA to support NDA, IND, ANDA another DMF or amendments and supplements to any of these
  • It is provided for in the 21 CFR (Code of Federal Regulations) 314. 420
  • It is not required when applicant references its own information
 9.What are the types of DMF’s?
Ans-
Type I: Manufacturing Site, Facilities, Operating Procedures, and Personnel (No longer accepted by FDA)
Type II: Drug Substance, Drug Substance Intermediate, and Material Used in Their Preparation, or Drug Product
Type III: Packaging Material
Type IV : Excipient, Colorant, Flavor, Essence, or Material Used in Their Preparation
Type V: FDA Accepted Reference Information (FDA discourages its use)

10.What is a 505 (b)(2) application ?
Ans- 505 (b)(2) application is a type of NDA for which one or more investigations relied on by applicant for approval were not conducted by/for applicant and for which applicant has not obtained a right of reference.

11.What kind of application can be submitted as a 505(b)(2) application?
Ans-  
  • New chemical entity (NCE)/new molecular entity (NME)
  • Changes to previously approved drugs

12. What are the examples of changes to approved drug products for which 505(b)(2) application should be submitted ?
Ans-  
  • Change in dosage form.
  • Change in strength
  • Change in route of administration
  • Substitution of an active ingredient in a formulation product
  • Change in formulation
  • Change in dosing regimen
  • Change in active ingredient
  •  New combination Product
  • New indication
  • Change from prescription indication to OTC indication
  • Naturally derived or recombinant active ingredient
  • Bioinequivalence

13.What are the chemical classification codes for NDA?
Ans-  
Number
Meaning
1
New molecular entity (NME)
2
New ester, new salt, or other noncovalent derivative
3
New formulation
4
New combination
5
New manufacturer
6
New indication
7
Drug already marketed, but without an approved NDA
8
OTC (over-the-counter) switch


14.What are the differences between NDA and 505 (b)(2) application ?
Ans-  
S.No.
New Drug Application (NDA)
505 (b)(2) Application
1.
All investigations relied on by applicant for approval were conducted by/for applicant and for which applicant has right of reference
One or more investigation relied on by applicant for approval were not conducted by/for applicant and for which applicant has not obtained a right of reference
2.
Generally, filed for newly invented pharmaceuticals.
Generally, filed for new dosage form, new route of administration, new indication etc for all already approved pharmaceutical.

Note: 505 (b)(2) application is a type of NDA. 

15.What is a Marketing Authorization Application?
Ans- It is an application filed with the relevant authority in the Europe (typically, the UK's MHRA or the EMA’s Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP)) to market a drug or medicine.
As per UK’s MHRA-
Applications for new active substances are described as 'full applications'.
Applications for medicines containing existing active substances are described as 'abbreviated’ or ‘abridged applications’.

16.What is an ASMF?
Ans-Active substance master file is a submission which is made to EMA, MHRA or any other Drug Regulatory Authority in Europe to provide confidential intellectual property or 'know-how' of the manufacturer of the active substance.
In simple words, “It is a submission made to European Drug regulatory agencies on the confidential information of Active Substance or Active pharmaceutical Ingredient (API)”.

17.What are the types of active substances for which ASMFs are submitted?
Ans-
  • New active substances
  • Existing active substances not included in the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) or the pharmacopoeia of an EU Member State
  • Pharmacopeial active substances included in the Ph. Eur. or in the pharmacopoeia of an EU Member State

18.What is the difference between DMF and ASMF (with respect to submission)?
Ans-ASMF is submitted as Applicant’s Part (Open Part) and Restricted Part (Closed Part)
There isn’t any differentiation of DMF’s into parts

19.What is ICH?
Ans-International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH): is a project that brings together the regulatory authorities of Europe, Japan and the United States and experts from the pharmaceutical industry in the three regions to discuss scientific and technical aspects of pharmaceutical product registration.

20.What is CTD?
Ans-The Common Technical Document (CTD) is a set of specification for application dossier, for the registration of Medicines and designed to be used across Europe, Japan and the United States.Quality, Safety and Efficacy information is assembled in a common format through CTD .The CTD is maintained by the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH).
CTD format for submission of drug registration applications/dossiers is widely accepted by regulatory authorities of other countries too like Canada, Australia etc. 

21.What are the ICH guidelines to be referred for preparation of registration dossiers/applications of medicines (With respect to format and contents in each module)?
Ans-
M4   Guideline
M4Q Guideline
M4S Guideline
M4E Guideline

22.What are the modules in CTD?
Ans- 
The Common Technical Document is divided into five modules:
Module 1. Administrative information and prescribing information
Module 2. Common Technical Document summaries (Overview and summary of modules 3 to 5)
Module 3. Quality 
Module 4. Nonclinical Study Reports (toxicology studies)
Module 5. Clinical Study Reports (clinical studies)

22.What is Orange Book?
Ans-
  • It is the commonly used name for the book “Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations”, which is published by USFDA.
  • It contains the list of drug products, approved on the basis of safety and effectiveness by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

23.What is Hatch-Waxman act?
Ans-It is the popular name for Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act, 1984. It is considered as the landmark legislation which established the modern system of generic drugs in USA. Hatch-Waxman amendment of the federal food, drug and cosmetics act established the process by which, would be marketers of generic drugs can file Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) to seek FDA approval of generic drugs. Paragraph IV of the act, allows 180 day exclusivity to companies that are the "first-to-file" an ANDA against holders of patents for branded counterparts.
In simple words “Hatch-Waxman act is the amendment to Federal, Food, Drug and Cosmetics act which established the modern system of approval of generics ”

24.What are the patent certifications under Hatch-Waxman act?
Ans-As per the Hatch and Waxman act, generic drug and 505 (b) (2) applicants should include certifications in their applications for each patent listed in the “Orange Book” for the innovator drug. This certification must state one of the following:
(I) that the required patent information relating to such patent has not been filed (Para I certification);
(II) that such patent has expired (Para II certification);
(III) that the patent will expire on a particular date (Para III certification); or
(IV) that such patent is invalid or will not be infringed by the drug, for which approval is being sought(Para IV certification).
A certification under paragraph I or II permits the ANDA to be approved immediately, if it is otherwise eligible. A certification under paragraph III indicates that the ANDA may be approved when the patent expires.

25.What is meant by 180 day exclusivity?
Ans-The Hatch-Waxman Amendments provide an incentive of 180 days of market exclusivity to the “first” generic applicant who challenges a listed patent by filing a paragraph IV certification and thereby runs the risk of having to defend a patent infringement suit.
180 Day Exclusivity could be granted to more than one applicant. The recent example is- 180 day exclusivity was granted to Ranbaxy and Watson Laboratories for marketing generic version of  Lipitor ( Atorvastatin calcium).

26.What are the procedures for Approval of Drug in EU?
Centralised Procedure (CP)
Decentralised Procedure (DCP)
Mutual Recognition Procedure (MRP)
National Procedure (NP)

27.What is the Full form of abbreviation, CEP?
Certificate of Suitability to the monographs of the European Pharmacopoeia (or) Certificate of suitability of monographs of the European Pharmacopoeia (or) Certification of suitability of European Pharmacopoeia monographs
It is also informally referred to as Certificate of Suitability (COS)

28.What is a CEP?
It is the certificate which is issued by Certification of Substances Division of European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines (EDQM), when the manufacturer of a substance provides proof that the quality of the substance is suitably controlled by the relevant monographs of the European Pharmacopoeia.

29.What are the recently approved new Drugs by FDA (Under NDA Chemical Type 1)? (As on 14th March, 2012)
Ans-
S.NO.
NDA #
NAME OF DRUG
NAME OF ACTIVE INGREDIENT
COMPANY
1
203188
KALYDECO
IVACAFTOR
VERTEX PHARMS
2
203388
ERIVEDGE 
VISMODEGIB
GENENTECH
3
202324
INLYTA 
AXITINIB
PFIZER
4
202833
PICATO
INGENOL MEBUTATE
LEO PHARMA AS
5
202514
ZIOPTAN 
TAFLUPROST
MERCK SHARP DOHME
6
021746
SURFAXIN
LUCINACTANT 
DISCOVERY LABORATORIES INC


30.Full forms of some of the Abbreviations related to Regulatory Affairs-
S.No.
Abbreviation
Full Form
1
NDA
New Drug Application
2
ANDA
Abbreviated New Drug application
3
IND
 Investigational New Drug Application
4
DMF
Drug Master file
5
ASMF
Active Substance Master File
6
MAA
Marketing Authorisation Application
7
CEP
Certificate of Suitability to the monographs of the European Pharmacopoeia
8
ICH
The International Conference on Harmonisation of technical requirements for registration of Pharmaceuticals for human use.
9
CTD
Common technical document for the registration of pharmaceuticals for human use.
10
AP
Applicant’s Part
11
RP
Restricted Part
12
OP
Open Part
13
CP
Closed Part
14
NME
New Molecular Entity
15
NCE
New Chemical Entity
16
SmPC
Summary of Product Characteristics
17
PL
Packaging Leaflet
18
RMS
Reference Member State
19
CMS
Concerned Member State
20
CHMP
The Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use
21
CPMP
Committee for Proprietary Medicinal Products
22
CVMP
Committee For Medicinal Products For Veterinary Use
23
SUPAC
Scale-up and post approval changes
24
BACPAC
Bulk Active Chemicals Post approval Changes
25
cGMP
Current good Manufacturing Practice
26
GCP
Good clinical Practice
27
GLP
Good Laboratory Practice


31.Well known Drug Regulatory Agencies across the world-
S.No.
Country /Region
                               Regulatory Agency
1
United States of America
United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA)
2
United Kingdom
Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA)
3
European Union
European Medicines Agency (EMA)
4
European Union
European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines (EDQM)
5
Australia
Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA)
6
Canada
Therapeutic Products Directorate  (TPD) in Health Product and food branch (HPFB) of Health Canada (HC)
7
Japan
Pharmaceutical and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA)
8
France
Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Produits de Sante (AFSSAPS)
Translated into English as- French Agency for the Safety of Health Products
9
Germany
Bundesinstitut für Arzneimittel und Medizinprodukte, (BfArM)
Tanslated into English as- Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices
10
Brazil
Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA)
Tanslated into English as- The National Health Surveillance Agency
11
India
Drugs Controller General of India (DCGI) who heads Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation (CDSCO)
12
Switzerland
Swiss Agency for Therapeutic Products (SWISSMEDIC)
14
Singapore
Health Sciences Authority (HSA)
15
New Zealand
New Zealand Medicines and Medical Devices Safety Authority (MEDSAFE)

Previous Page Next Page

People Searching On This Page:
  • drug regulatory affairs interview questions pdf
  • drug regulatory affairs notes
  • pharma company in quality control department
  • sample interview questions to ask for regulatory affairs positions
  • regulatory affairs interview questions answers
  • regulatory process interview questions
  • ra interview questions in pharma
  • mcq on dmf in drug regulations
  • regulatory affairs interview questions pdf
  • interview questions for regulatory affairs associate
  • qustions answers for reglatory affair in pharma interview
  • technical interview questions for regulatory position with otc
  • info v.pl loc:IN
  • info discoverie.com.au loc:IN
  • info 8666.com loc:IN

Related Pages


Interview Questions & Answers of Clinical trials

Interview Questions & Answers of Clinical trials

Articles | Clinical Research
Date:
07-Aug-2011  Views: 51434

Phase 1: Test a new drug or treatment to a small group of people (20-80) to evaluate its safety.Phase 2: The experimental drug or treatment is given t ...
Interview Tips for Regulatory Affairs Jobs

Interview Tips for Regulatory Affairs Jobs

Jobs | Regulatory Affair
Date:
27-Jul-2011  Views: 17740

The pharmaceutical industry relies on regulatory affairs specialists to get their drugs approved by the FDA as quickly and cost-effectively as possibl ...
Pharmaceutical Interview Questions and Answers

Pharmaceutical Interview Questions and Answers

Articles
Date:
27-May-2011  Views: 49980

The interview questions below can be used for pharmaceutical positions such as:1. Pharmaceutical manager;2. Pharmaceutical assistant;3. Pharmaceutical ...
Officer - Regulatory Affairs (Corporate Affairs)

Officer - Regulatory Affairs (Corporate Affairs)

Jobs | Regulatory Affair | Ahmedabad
Date:
10-May-2011  Views: 6257

Troikaa is a young and fast growing system oriented pharmaceutical company. Troikaa is recognized as a discovery company, manufacturing innovative pro ...
Sample Interview Questions And Answers

Sample Interview Questions And Answers

Jobs
Date:
31-May-2010  Views: 62445

Many job seekers would like to see some sample interview questions and answers, that's why I list some most asked questions with answers here. However ...
Post Your Comments (No Login Require)
Name : (required)
Email : (required)
Website :

Comment : (required)

45  + 9 =     
Comments
md gayasuddin  |  22-Jan-2013 21:45:55 IST
thanks alot pharma tips god bless you with deeds and bounty
GUNWANT  |  08-Jun-2013 15:33:37 IST
A really thanx...........

Sperb...........
Santosh Sutar  |  01-Dec-2013 15:04:42 IST
thanks a lot it makes me aware of laws related to pharma .
Mukesh Sonawane  |  28-Jan-2016 22:17:09 IST
like
People Searched About:
Drug Regulatory Affairs Interview Questions Pdf   |   Drug Regulatory Affairs Notes   |   Pharma Company In Quality Control Department   |   Sample Interview Questions To Ask For Regulatory Affairs Positions   |   Regulatory Affairs Interview Questions Answers   |   Regulatory Process Interview Questions   |   Ra Interview Questions In Pharma   |   Technical Interview Questions For Regulatory Position With Otc   |   Info V.Pl Loc:IN   |   Info Discoverie.Com.Au Loc:IN   |   Info 8666.Com Loc:IN   |   Info Orange.Pl Loc:IN   |   Info Anser.Pl Loc:IN   |   Regulatory Affairs Interview Question And Answers   |   Ranbaxy USA Interview Questions   |   Regualtory Specialist Inerview Questions   |   Good Regulatory Affairs Interview Questions   |   Regulatory Affairs Interview Questions And Answers   |   Sample Regulatory Affairs Interview Questions   |   Regulatory Affairs Interview Questions   |   Bfarm Abridged Registration   |  
Google : 2445 times | Yahoo : 32 times | Bing : 181 times |