Peptic ulcer and treatment of peptic ulcer

By: Pharma Tips | Views: 3563 | Date: 09-Sep-2013

Peptic ulcer disease is characterized by inflamed lesions or excavations (ulcer) of the mucosa and underlying tissue of the upper gastrointestinal tract. The ulcers are the result of the damage to the mucous membrane that normally protects the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum from gastric acid and pepsin. This damage can be caused by several factors, including excessive acid, and pepsin production, bile acid reflux, advancing age, ischemia, inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, and infection with the Hel



Peptic ulcer and treatment of peptic ulcer

 What is peptic ulcer disease?

Peptic ulcer disease is characterized by inflamed lesions or excavations (ulcer) of the mucosa and underlying tissue of the upper gastrointestinal tract. The ulcers are the result of the damage to the mucous membrane that normally protects the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum from gastric acid and pepsin. This damage can be caused by several factors, including excessive acid, and pepsin production, bile acid reflux, advancing age,  ischemia,  inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, and infection with the Helicobactor pylori.

 What is peptic ulcer disease?

Risk factors for peptic ulcer disease

  • Smoking
  • Nonsteroidal anti –inflammatory drugs
  • Gastrointestinal ischemia
  • Prolonged use of glucocorticoids
  • Intake if excessive amount of alcohol
  • Helicobacter pylori

Pathogenesis of peptic ulcer


Helicobacter pylori induced gastritis is believed to precede the development of peptic ulcers in most persons. H. pylori are found in the gastrointestinal tract of almost all patients with duodenal ulcers and about 80% of patients with gastric ulcers. Evidence indicates that the organism can penetrate the mucosa, attach to mucosal  epithelial cells, release enzymes that damage the mucous membrane and mucosal  cells, and cause inflammation and tissue destruction. Evidence also indicates that the eradication of H. pylori heals peptic ulcers and significantly reduces the recurrence rate for gastric and duodenal ulcers.

The agents used to treat the peptic ulcer disease include drugs that reduce gastric acidity (primarily histamine H2 receptor blocker and proton pump inhibitors), drugs that eliminate H. pylori, and drugs that exert a cytoprotective effect on the gastrointestinal mucosa.

Agents used to treat peptic ulcer

Drugs that reduce gastric acidity

Histamine H2 receptor antagonist

  • Famotidine (PEPCID)
  • Cimetidine (TAGAMET)
  • Ranitidine (ZANTAC)

Proton pump inhibitors

  • Omeprazole(PRILOSEC)
  • Pantoprazole(PROTONIX)

Gastric antacids

  • Aluminum and magnesium hydroxides
  • Calcium carbonate

Cytoprotective drugs

  • Misoprostol (CYTOTEC)
  • Sucralfate

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