Pharma Tips

Introduction of Ischemic Brain Injury

By: Pharma Tips | Views: 1487 | Date: 30-Apr-2011

Stroke is caused by an interruption of the blood supply to a part of brain by thrombus or embolus occlusion or hemorrhage due to bursting of blood vessel and spilling blood into the spaces surrounding brain cells in all or part of the brain. Symptoms of stroke are numbness of the face, arm, or leg, especially on one side of the body, confusion, trouble in speaking, seeing and walking, dizziness, loss of balance or coordination. severe headache. There are many types of stroke

1. Introduction
Stroke is caused by an interruption of the blood supply to a part of brain by thrombus or embolus occlusion or hemorrhage due to bursting of blood vessel and spilling blood into the spaces surrounding brain cells in all or part of the brain. Symptoms of stroke are numbness of the face, arm, or leg, especially on one side of the body, confusion, trouble in speaking, seeing and walking, dizziness, loss of balance or coordination. severe headache. There are many types of stroke

A. Ischemic stroke
An ischemic stroke occurs when a blood vessel that supplies blood to the brain becomes blocked or clogged and impairs blood flow to part of the brain. Brain cells and tissues begin to die due to lack of oxygen and nutrients. The symptoms depend on the side of the brain affected, part of the brain, and how severely the brain is injured. Ischemic strokes are further divided into two groups:

a. Thrombotic stroke
Thrombotic stroke is caused by a thrombus (blood clot) that develops in an artery supplying blood to the brain.  Thrombus formation occurs because of a fatty deposits, calcium and clotting factors such as fibrinogen and cholesterol, carried in the blood. This type of stroke is usually seen in older persons.
Large vessel thrombosis occurs in the brain’s larger artery and caused by combination of long-term atherosclerosis followed by rapid blood clot formation.
Small vessel disease or lacunar infarction occurs when blood flow is blocked to a very small arterial vessel and caused by high blood pressure.

b. Embolic stroke
In embolic stroke, the clots form outside of the brain (usually in the heart or large arteries of the upper chest and neck) and is transported through the bloodstream to the small blood vessel of brain and block its passage.
Embolic strokes result from heart disease or heart surgery and may be occur without any warning signs. In 15 percent of people with Embolic strokes, emboli are caused by Atrial fibrillation—an abnormal, rapid heartbeat in which the two atria of the heart quiver instead of beating. Quivers cause the blood to pool, forming clots.

B. Transient ischemic stroke (TIA)
Transient ischemic attack or mini-stroke are conditions indicative of an ischemic stroke. The obstruction occurs for a short time and tends to resolve itself through normal mechanisms. Even though the symptoms disappear after a short time, it is a strong indicator of a possible major stroke. Symptoms of a TIA are like ischemic stroke symptoms but do not last as long.  Most symptoms disappear within an hour, although some may persist for up to 24 hours. Usually, no permanent brain damage occurs as a result of a TIA.
C. Hemorrhagic stroke
Hemorrhagic stroke occurs when a blood vessel in the brain suddenly ruptures and blood begins to leak directly into brain tissue and/or into the clear cerebrospinal fluid that surrounds the brain and fills its central cavities (ventricles). The rupture can be caused by long standing high blood pressure and cerebral aneurysm (a weak spot in a blood vessel wall usually present at birth) or other blood vessel malformation in or around the brain. Severity of the stroke depends on location of the hemorrhage rather than the amount of bleeding. Four types of hemorrhagic stroke
 a. Subarachnoid hemorrhage
Subarachnoid hemorrhage occurs when bleeding from a damaged vessel causes blood to accumulate between the brain and the skull. When blood enters the subarachnoid space, it mixes with the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that cushions the brain and spinal cord and can block CSF circulation, which leads to fluid buildup and increased pressure on the brain. ventricles in the brain may enlarge resulting hydrocephalus.
Subarachnoid hemorrhage occurs because a cerebral aneurysm (an abnormal bulging outward in the wall of an artery), arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) (abnormal connections between cerebral arteries) near the surface of the brain.
b. Intracerebral hemorrhage,
Intracerebral hemorrhage caused by the sudden rupture of an artery or blood vessel within the brain. The blood that leaks into the brain increase in pressure that can damage the surrounding brain cells.  Sudden and extreme buildup in pressure can lead to unconsciousness or death.
Intracerebral hemorrhage is usually caused by hypertension, arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) in the brain.

c. Subdural hematoma
Subdural hematoma develops in the potential space between the dura and the middle layer membrane (arachnoid). This condition may become chronic when shrinkage (atrophy) of the brain allows the brain to move more freely within the skull. High velocity impact to the skull may cause acute subdural hematoma, which is often fatal. This is often seen in elderly patients.

d. Epidural hemorrhage
Epidural hematoma develops in the potential space between the outer membrane (dura) and the skull.

Previous Page Next Page

People Searching On This Page:
  • risk of death from ischemic brain injury elderly
  • cause of ischemic brain damage
  • cbf email loc:IN
  • brain injury loc:IN
  • introduction to Ischemic stroke
  • pharmacology of ischaemic brain damage
  • ischemic stroke symptoms
  • cause of ischemic brain injury
  • ischemic brain damage and its pharmacology
  • ischemic brain damage introduction

Related Pages


Introduction of Biotechnology

Introduction of Biotechnology

Articles | Biology | Biotechnology
Date:
01-May-2011  Views: 7922

“Biotechnology” is a fast emerging thrust area with unprecedented opportunity for understanding of fundamental life processes as well as physical well ...
Genesis of Brain

Genesis of Brain

Articles | Pharmacology | Central Nervous System
Date:
30-Apr-2011  Views: 18266

From a single fertilised egg of about 0.14 millimetres in diameter, to an adult human being, the neurophysiology of development of the brain and nervo ...
Mechanism of Ischemic brain injury

Mechanism of Ischemic brain injury

Articles | Pharmacology | Central Nervous System
Date:
30-Apr-2011  Views: 2118

Brain requires a continuous and steady flow of glucose and oxygen to undergo oxidative phosphorylation for energy production because brain has no stor ...
Risk Factors  of Ischemic Brain Injury

Risk Factors of Ischemic Brain Injury

Articles | Pharmacology | Central Nervous System
Date:
30-Apr-2011  Views: 1485

Risk Factors That Can Be TreatedRisk Factors That Cannot Be ChangedContributing Risk Factors ...
A Review On Mechanism Of Ischemic Brain Injury

A Review On Mechanism Of Ischemic Brain Injury

Articles
Date:
22-Jun-2010  Views: 4827

Stroke is caused by an interruption of the blood supply to a part of brain by thrombus or embolus occlusion or hemorrhage due to bursting of blood ves ...
Post Your Comments (No Login Require)
Name : (required)
Email : (required)
Website :

Comment : (required)

93  + 6 =     
Comments
People Searched About:
Risk Of Death From Ischemic Brain Injury Elderly   |   Cause Of Ischemic Brain Damage   |   Cbf Email Loc:IN   |   Brain Injury Loc:IN   |   Introduction To Ischemic Stroke   |   Pharmacology Of Ischaemic Brain Damage   |   Ischemic Stroke Symptoms   |   Cause Of Ischemic Brain Injury   |   Ischemic Brain Damage And Its Pharmacology   |   Ischemic Brain Damage Introduction   |  
Google : 236 times | Yahoo : 14 times | Bing : 166 times |