Pharmacognosy of Achyranthes aspera

By: Pharma Tips | Views: 1462 | Date: 22-Nov-2013

It is an erect herb, 0.3-1meter high with stiff branches terete or absolutely quadrangular, striate, pubescent, leaves few, usually thick, elliptic-obovate, petiolate, acute and entire. Flowers are greenish white, numerous in small dense auxiliary heads or spikes, bracts and bracteoles persisting ending in a spine. Main root is long cylindrical thick; secondary and tertiary roots present slightly ribbed, yellowish brown in color; odor is slight, taste is slightly sweet and mucilaginous; stem is yellow brown

Pharmacognosy of Achyranthes aspera


Achyranthes aspera




Botanical name : Achyranthes aspera Linn.


Family : Amaranthaceae


SANSKRIT SYNONYMS : Apamargah, Mayoorah,Markatapippalee, Durgrahah


AYURVEDIC PROPERTIES –
(fruit) Rasa : Madhura Guna : Rooksha, Sara Virya : Seeta
( root) Rasa : Tikta, Katu Guna : Teekshna, Sara Virya : Ushna


PLANT NAME IN DIFFERENT LANGUAGES :
English : Prickly chaff-flower plantHindi : CircitaMalayalam : Vankadaladi


PLANT DESCRIPTION : It is an erect herb, 0.3-1meter high with stiff branches terete or absolutely quadrangular, striate, pubescent, leaves few, usually thick, elliptic-obovate, petiolate, acute and entire. Flowers are greenish white, numerous in small dense auxiliary heads or spikes, bracts and bracteoles persisting ending in a spine. Main root is long cylindrical thick; secondary and tertiary roots present slightly ribbed, yellowish brown in color; odor is slight, taste is slightly sweet and mucilaginous; stem is yellow brownish, erect branched, cylindrical hairy about 60 cm high. Seeds are sub cylindrical, truncats at apex, rounded at base, black and shining. The plant is distributed through out India up to an altitude of 3000ft.


CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS :The plant contains triterpenoid saponins possessing oleanolic acid as aglycone, viz. A, B, C and D as major chemical constituents. Other constituents of the plant are ecdysterone, long chain alcohol, viz. 17-penta triacontanol, 27-cyclohexyl heptaeosan-7-ol, 16-hydroxyl 26-methyl heptacosan-2one and 36, 47-dihydroxy hen-pentacontan-4one. It also contains a water soluble base, betaine


Chemical constituents of Achyranthes aspera Linn.Constituents1. Saponins from alcoholic extract of defatted seeds2. Oleanic acid from seeds3. Saponins A and B4. Saponins C and D from unripe fruits 5. AA, CHO, protein, Fe, Ca, phosphorous6. Achyranthine, N-methyl pyrrolidine –3 carboxylic acid7. Water soluble base, betaine8. Vitamin C


9. Ecdysterone10. Inokosterone ecdysterone in callus and tissue culture11. Enzyme levelMEDICINAL PROPERTIES : Plant pacifies vitiated vata, kapha, asthma, bronchitis, flatulence, painful inflammations, vomiting, skin diseases, renal and vesical calculi.


Useful part : The whole plant


USES : 1.To induce abortion (I) A thin paste is obtained by grinding the inflorescence in a mortar and pastel with sufficient quantity of water and applied to external genitalia (1,3,4).(II) Two ml decoction obtained by boiling fresh root in water is introduced in vagina to terminate the pregnancy (1,2,3,4, 5). The quantity of decoction must not exceed the quantity as prescribed above. 2.To induce labor pains A thin paste is obtained by grinding fresh roots with sufficient quantity of water in a mortar and pastel. The paste is applied to external genitalia (1, 3, 4).3. To expel dead fetus *Thoroughly washed fresh roots are pounded, put in a clean piece of cheesecloth and squeezed to obtain fresh root extract. Two to three ml extract is given orally twice a day for three days. 4. To expel the remains of placenta after abortion *Fresh root extract, obtained in the manner described above, is administered orally for seven days or till the placenta is expelled.5. Excessive hemorrhage during pregnancy*Two to three ml aqueous decoction of chopped fresh leaves is given orally twice a day. The treatment is continued till complete cure is obtained.6. Excessive hemorrhage during early pregnancy*Two to three ml of aqueous decoction of fresh leaves or inflorescence is administered orally twice a day for fifteen days or till complete cure is obtained.7. Post-partal hemorrhageThree ml aqueous decoction of fresh leaves is given orally twice a day for seven days. Dose can be altered according to the frequency and amount of blood loss. The treatment can be continued beyond seven days since no side effects of this therapy are reported .8. Pos- partal body aches Three ml aqueous decoction of fresh roots is given orally twice da day for seven days or till complete recovery is achieved .9. Post- partal feverA mixture of three ml each of leaf decoctions of A.aspera and neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Family Meliaceae) is given orally twice a day for seven days. The treatment may be continued if necessary.10. Post-abortion abdominal pain* Three ml fresh root extract is administered orally once a day for seven days or till complete cure is achieved.11. Post-partal loss of appetite (Anorexia)* Three ml fresh leaf extract, with a pinch of powdered kala namak (sodium chloride mixed with sodium sulphate) added, is given orally twice a day for seven days or till desired effect is obtained.12. Prolonged menstrual flow*Three ml leaf extract mixed with a little curd is administered orally twice a day for seven days. The therapy is started on first day of beginning of menstrual cycle and repeated for five consecutive cycles 13. Amenorrhoea Three ml leaf decoction is given orally once on empty stomach before sunrise for fifteen days. The therapy is reported to be more effective in women aged between 18-28 years . 14. Dysmenorrhoea* Three ml fresh leaf extract is given orally twice a day for seven days. The therapy is started on first day of beginning of menstrual cycle and repeated for five to seven consecutive cycles 15. Menoxenia (abnormal menses)(I) Three ml fresh leaf decoction is administered orally thrice a day for seven days. The therapy is started on first day of beginning of menstrual cycle and repeated for five consecutive cycles. This therapy is prescribed when the duration of menstrual cycles is irregular.(II) A mixture of three ml each of fresh leaf decoctions of A. aspera and ‘Punarnava’ (Boerhavia diffusa L. (Family- Nyctaginaceae) is given orally during three consecutive menstrual cycles.16. Leucorrhoea* Three ml fresh leaf extract mixed with a little curd is given orally before sunrise for twenty-one days.17. Habitual abortion*A mixture of two ml fresh leaf extract of A. aspera and two g powder of shade dried roots of ‘Ashwagandha’ (Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Family-Solanaceae) is given orally twice a day from the beginning of third month of pregnancy (1).18. Abnormal secretion of lochia*Two ml fresh leaf decoction is administered orally once a day for seven days (1). 19. Costodynia (pain in ribs)Two ml fresh root decoction is administered orally twice a day for seven days (1).20. Post delivery/abortion jaundiceTwo ml fresh root decoction is administered orally twice a day for seven days. Therapy should be started in early stages of jaundice to obtain better results. 21. Infertility in women*Two ml decoction of root and stem is administered orally thrice a day for three months. Younger women respond better to this therapy
Cardiovascular Antibacterial and antifungal Antidiabetic Spasmolytic Antiasthmatic Antiallergic Astringent Emetic Abdominal tumor Chemoprotective Diuretic Antiperiodic Purgative

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