Introduction Of Caffeine

By: Pharma Tips | Views: 7784 | Date: 27-May-2011

Caffeine is a bitter, white crystalline xanthine alkaloid that acts as a psychoactive stimulant drug and a mild diuretic.

          Caffeine is a bitter, white crystalline xanthine alkaloid that acts as a psychoactive stimulant drug and a mild diuretic.

                Caffeine was discovered by a German chemist, Friedrich Ferdinand Runge, in 1819. He coined the term "kaffein", a chemical compound in coffee, which in English became caffeine. Caffeine is also called guaranine when found in guarana, mateine when found in mate, and theine when found in tea; all of these names are synonyms for the same chemical compound.


In general, each of the following contains approximately 200 milligrams of caffeine:

•    One 200 milligram caffeine pill
•    3 x espresso shots (30 mL, or 1 fl. oz each)
•    355 mL (12 fl. oz) cup of regular coffee
•    680 g (1.5 lb) of milk chocolate
•    540 mL (18 fl. oz) of black tea
•    710 mL (24 fl. oz) of Red Bull energy drink
•    1.2 L (40 fl. oz) of Mountain Dew
•    2 L (68 fl. oz) of Coca-Cola
•    2.4 L (80 fl. oz) of green tea
•    12 L (400 fl. oz) of decaffeinated coffee

Caffeine extraction is an important industrial process and can be performed using a number of different solvents. Benzene, chloroform, trichloroethylene and dichloromethane have all been used over the years but for reasons of safety, environmental impact, cost and flavor, they have been superseded by the following main methods:

1. Water excreation
2. Suprecritical carbon dioxide extraction
3. Extraction by organic solvents
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