Introduction of Effervescent Tablet

By: Pharma Tips | Views: 14459 | Date: 29-Mar-2011

As per revised definition proposed to US FDA, Effervescent tablet is a tablet intended to be dissolved or dispersed in water before administration.Effervescent tablets are uncoated tablets that generally contain acid substances and carbonates or bicarbonates and which react rapidly in the presence of water by releasing carbon dioxide. They are intended to be dissolved or dispersed in water before use.


As per revised definition proposed to US FDA, Effervescent tablet is a tablet intended to be dissolved or dispersed in water before administration.Effervescent tablets are uncoated tablets that generally contain acid substances and carbonates or bicarbonates and which react rapidly in the presence of water by releasing carbon dioxide. They are intended to be dissolved or dispersed in water before use.


Effervescence has also proved its utility as an oral drug delivery system in the pharmaceutical and dietary industries for decades. In Europe, effervescent dosage forms are widespread, and their use is growing in the US because they offer pharmaceutical and nutraceutical companies a way to extend their market share.

A wide range of effervescent tablets have been formulated over the years. These include dental compositions containing enzymes, contact lens cleaners, washing powder compositions, beverage sweetening tablets, chewable dentifrice, dental cleansers, surgical instrument sterilizers, analgesics and effervescent candies as well as many preparations of prescription pharmaceuticals such as antibiotics, ergotamines, digoxin, methadone and L- dopa. Preparations for veterinary use have also been developed.

Effervescent products should be stored in tightly closed containers or moisture proof packs. They should be preserved in air tight containers and protected from excessive moisture.

It should be labeled that these products are not to be swallowed directly (52). The label should state that when the tablets are packaged in individual pouches, the label instructs the user not to open until time of use andthe tablets are to be dissolved in water before being taken

Advantages Of Effervescent Tablets

1. Fast onset of action
Effervescent tablets have major advantage that the drug product is already in solution at the time it is consumed. Thus, the absorption is faster and more complete than with conventional tablet. This is particularly helpful in treating acute symptoms of pain. Faster absorption means faster onset of action, critical in treating acute symptoms such as pain. Buffered preparations with adjustable stomach pH optimize formula performance characteristics.
Effervescent drugs are delivered to the stomach at a pH that is just right for absorption. Many medications travel slowly through the gastrointestinal tract or have absorption that is hampered by food or other drugs. To achieve desired absorption levels, such drugs have to be often administered as injections or with increased dosages.

2. No need to swallow tablets
Effervescent medications are administered in liquid form so they are easy to take as compared to tablets or capsules. The number of people who cannot swallow tablets or who dislike swallowing tablets and capsules is growing. Many diseased conditions require the patient or customer to swallow several tablets at a time. The elderly, in particular, have difficulty in swallowing tablets. With an effervescent dosage form, one dose can usually be delivered in just 3 or 4 ounces of water. The amount used when someone swallows a conventional tablet or capsule.

3. Good stomach and intestinal tolerance
Effervescent tablets dissolve fully in a buffered solution. Reduced localized contact in the upper gastrointestinal tract leads to less irritation and greater tolerability. Buffering also prevents gastric acids from interacting with the drugs themselves, which can be a major cause of stomach and esophageal upsets.

4. More portability
Effervescent tablets are more easily transported than liquid medication because no water is added until it's ready to use.

5. Improved palatability
Drugs delivered with the effervescent base, taste better than most liquids, mixtures and suspensions. Superior taste masking is achieved by limiting objectionable characteristics and complementing formulations with flavors and fragrances. Effervescent pharmaceuticals retain their flavor after lengthy storage. The effervescent tablets essentially include flavorings so they taste much better than a mixture of a non-effervescent powder in water. Moreover, they produce fizzy tablets, which may have better consumer appeal than the traditional dosage forms.

6. Superior stability
Excellent stability is inherent with effervescent formulations, particularly surpassing liquid forms.

7. More consistent response
Drugs delivered using effervescent technology have predictable and reproducible pharmacokinetic profiles that are much more consistent than tablets or capsules.

8. Incorporation of large amounts of active ingredients
In many cases, one effervescent tablet will equal to three conventional tablets in active dose amounts.

9. Accurate dosing
Researchers have shown that effervescent tablets enhance the absorption of a number of active ingredients (e.g. disulfiram and caffeine), compared to conventional formulations. This is because the carbon dioxide created by the effervescent reaction can induce enhanced active-ingredient permeability due to an alteration of the paracellular pathway. The paracellular pathway is the primary route of absorption for hydrophilic active ingredients in which the solutes diffuse into the intercellular space between epithelial cells. It is postulated that the carbon dioxide widens the intercellular space between cells, which leads to greater absorption of active ingredients (both hydrophobic and hydrophilic). The increased absorption of hydrophobic active ingredients could be due to the non-polar carbon dioxide gas molecules partition into the cell membrane, thus creating an increased hydrophobic environment, which would allow the hydrophobic active ingredients to be absorbed.

10. Improved therapeutic effect
The effervescent components aid in improving the therapeutic profiles of the active ingredients. They also help in solubilization of poorly soluble drugs.

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72  + 6 =     
Calistus  |  28-Oct-2017 04:07:24 IST
You have made some good points here.
[url=]Understanding Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms[/url]
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