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Characterization of Emulsion

By: Pharma Tips | Views: 6094 | Date: 02-Jun-2011

The type of emulsion prepared can be determined by simple tests such as dilutiontest, dye solubility test, and electrical conductivity test. The dilution test is based onthe principle that an emulsion can be diluted with its continuous phase.

The type of emulsion prepared can be determined by simple tests such as dilution
test, dye solubility test, and electrical conductivity test. The dilution test is based on
the principle that an emulsion can be diluted with its continuous phase. If water is
added to an O/W emulsion, the emulsion is diluted indicating that water is the continuous
phase. In contrast, if water is added to a W/O emulsion, the emulsion is not
diluted and the separation is apparent.

The dye solubility test is based on the principle that water-soluble dye will be dispersed
in aqueous phase and oil-soluble will bedispersed in the oil phase of an emulsion.
For example, if a water-soluble dye is added to an emulsion, and if the dye diffuses
uniformly throughout the emulsion,

water is the continuous phase and it will be an O/W emulsion. The principle underlying the
electrical conductivity test is that water conducts an electric current and oils do not.
The droplet size and size distribution are important parameters when characterizing
emulsions. Flocculation, creaming, coalescence, and Ostwald ripening can be
evaluated by monitoring the changes in the droplet size distribution of the emulsion.

A diverse range of techniques applied to determine the droplet size includes
optical microscopy, dynamic light scattering, cryo-scanning electron microscopy,
transmission electron microscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance. Recently, differential
scanning calorimetry has been used to determine the droplet sizes (Clausse
et al. 2005). In this technique, a nondiluted emulsion is submitted to a regular cooling
and heating cycle between temperatures that include freezing and melting of the
dispersed droplets. The droplet size can be determined from the thermograms.
Information regarding emulsion type, purity, and stability can also be obtained
using differential scanning calorimetry.
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