GPAT Exam Syllabus 2011

By: Pharma Tips | Views: 3100 | Date: 07-Jul-2011

PHARMACEUTICS, PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY, PHARMACOLOGY,PHARMACOGNOSY


PHARMACEUTICS


Introduction to Physical pharmacy; Matter, Properties of Matter:
State of matter, change in the state of matter, latent heats and vapor pressure, sublimation-critical
point,  Eutectic  mixtures,  gases,  aerosols-inhalers,  relative  humidity,  liquid.  complexes,  liquid
crystals, glassy state, solids- crystalline, amorphous and polymorphism.
Micromeretics and Powder Rheology:
Particle  size  and  distribution,  average  particle  size,  number  and  weight  distribution,  particle
number,  methods  for  determining  particle  volume,  methods  of determining  particle  size-  optical
microscopy, sieving, sedimentation; measurements of particle shape, specific surface area; methods
for  determining  surface  area;  permeability,  adsorption,  derived  properties  of  powders,  porosity,
packing arrangement, densities, bulkiness & flow properties.
Surface and Interfacial Phenomenon:
Liquid interface, surface and interfacial tensions, surface free energy, measurement of surface and
interfacial tensions, spreading coefficient, adsorption at liquid interfaces, surface active agents, HLB
classification,  solubilization,  detergency,  adsorption  at  solid  interfaces,  solid-gas  and  solid-liquid
interfaces, complex films, electrical properties of interface.
Viscosity and Rheology:
Newtonian  systems,  Law  of  flow,  kinematic  viscosity,  effect  of  temperature;  non-Newtonian
systems: pseudoplastic, dilatant, plastic; thixotropy, thixotropy in formulation, negative thixotropy,
determination of viscosity, capillary, falling ball, rotational viscometers.
Dispersion Systems:
Colloidal  dispersions:  Definition,  types,  properties  of  colloids,  protective  colloids,  applications  of
colloids  in  pharmacy;  Suspensions  and  Emulsions:  Interfacial  properties  of  suspended  particles,
settling  in  suspensions,  theory  of  sedimentation,  effect  of  Brownian  motion,  sedimentation  of
flocculated  particles,  sedimentation  parameters,  wetting  of  particles,  controlled  flocculation,
flocculation  in  structured vehicles,  rheological  considerations; Emulsions-types, theories,  physical
stability.
Complexation:
Classification of complexes, methods of preparation and analysis, applications.
Kinetics and Drug Stability:
General considerations & concepts, half-life determination, Influence of temperature, light, solvent,
catalytic species and other factors, Accelerated stability study, expiration dating.
Importance of microbiology in pharmacy; Structure of bacterial cell; Classification of microbes
and their taxonomy:
Actinomycetes, bacteria, rickettsiae, spirochetes and viruses;
Identification of Microbes:
Stains  and  types  of  staining  techniques,  electron  microscopy;  Nutrition,  cultivation,  isolation  of
bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, viruses, etc; Microbial genetics and variation;
Control of microbes by physical and chemical methods:
Disinfection, factors influencing disinfectants, dynamics of disinfection, disinfectants and antiseptics
and their evaluation;
Sterilization:
different  methods,  validation  of  sterilization  methods  &  equipments;  Sterility  testing  of  all
pharmaceutical products. Microbial assays of antibiotics, vitamins & amino acids.
 
Immunology and Immunological Preparations:
Principles,  antigens  and  heptans,  immune  system,  cellular/humoral  immunity,  immunological
tolerance,  antigen-antibody  reactions  and  their  applications.  Hypersensitivity,  active  and  passive
immunization. Vaccines and sera: their preparation, standardization and storage.
Genetic Recombination:
Transformation,  conjugation,  transduction,  protoplast  fusion  and  gene  cloning  and  their
applications.  Development  of  hybridoma for  monoclonal  antibodies.  Study  of drugs  produced  by
biotechnology such as Activase, Humulin, Humatrope, HB etc;
Antibiotics:
Historical  development  of  antibiotics.  Antimicrobial  spectrum  and  methods  used  for  their
standardization. Screening of soil for organisms producing antibiotics, fermenter, its design, control
of  different  parameters.  Isolation  of  mutants,  factors  influencing  rate  of  mutation.  Design  of
fermentation  process.  Isolation  of  fermentation  products  with  special  reference  to  penicillins,
streptomycins tetracyclines and vitamin B12.
Introduction to pharmaceutical jurisprudence & ethics :
Pharmaceutical  Legislations  -  A  brief  review;  Drugs  &  Pharmaceutical  Industry  -  A  brief  review;
Pharmaceutical Education - A brief review;
An elaborate study of the followings:
Pharmaceutical  Ethics;  Pharmacy  Act  1948;  Drugs  and  Cosmetics  Act  1940  and  Rules  1945;
Medicinal & Toilet Preparations (Excise Duties) Act 1955; Narcotic Drugs & Psychotropic Substances
Act 1985 & Rules; Drugs Price Control Order;
A brief study of the following Acts with special reference to the main provisions and the latest
amendments:
Poisons  Act  1919;  Drugs  and Magic  Remedies  (Objectionable  Advertisements)  Act 1954; Medical
Termination of Pregnancy Act 1970 & Rules 1975; Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1960; States
Shops & Establishments Act & Rules; Insecticides Act 1968; AICTE Act 1987; Factories Act  1948;
Minimum Wages Act 1948; Patents Act 1970. A  brief  study  of  the  various  Prescription/Non-
prescription Products. Medical/Surgical accessories,  diagnostic  aids,  appliances available
in the market.
Introduction to dispensing and community pharmacy; Prescription:
Handling  of  prescription,  source  of  errors  in  prescription, care required in  dispensing  procedures
including  labeling  of  dispensed  products.  General  dispensing  procedures  including  labeling  of
dispensed  products;  Pharmaceutical calculations: Posology, calculation of  doses for infants, adults
and  elderly  patients;  Enlarging  and  reducing  recipes  percentage  solutions,  alligation,  alcohol
dilution, proof spirit, isotonic solutions, displacement value etc;
Principles involved and procedures adopted in dispensing of :
Typical  prescriptions  like  mixtures,  solutions,  emulsions,  creams,  ointments,  powders,  capsules,
pastes,  jellies,  suppositories,  ophthalmic,  pastilles,  lozenges,  pills,  lotions,  liniments,  inhalations,
paints sprays tablet triturates, etc;
Incompatibilities:
Physical  and  chemical  incompatibilities,  inorganic  incompatibilities  including  incompatibilities  of
metals and their salts, non-metals, acids, alkalis, organic incompatibilities. Purine bases, alkaloids,
pyrazolone derivatives, amino acids, quaternary ammonium compounds, carbohydrates, glycosides,
anesthetics,  dyes,  surface  active  agents,  correction  of  incompatibilities.  Therapeutic
incompatibilities;
Community Pharmacy:
Organization and structure of retail and whole sale drug store-types of drug store and design, legal
requirements  for  establishment,  maintenance  and  drug  store-dispensing  of  proprietary  products,
maintenance of records of retail and wholesale, patient counseling, role of pharmacist in community
health care and education (First aid, communicable diseases, nutrition, family planning).
Organization and Structure of hospital pharmacy:
Organization  of  a  hospital  and  hospital  pharmacy,  Responsibilities  of  a  hospital  pharmacist,
Pharmacy and therapeutic committee, Budget preparation and Implementation.
Hospital Formulary:
Contents, preparation and revision of hospital formulary.
Drug Store Management and Inventory Control:
Organization of drug store, Types of materials stocked, storage conditions; Purchase and Inventory
Control principles, purchase procedures, Purchase order, Procurement and stocking;
Drug distribution Systems in Hospitals:
Out-patient  dispensing,  methods  adopted;  Dispensing  of  drugs  to  in-patients.  Types  of  drug
distribution  systems.  Charging  policy,  labeling;  Dispensing  of  drugs  to  ambulatory  patients;
Dispensing of controlled drugs, Dispensing of ancillary supplies;
Central Sterile Supply Unit and their Management:
Types  of  materials  for  sterilization,  Packing  of  materials  prior  to  sterilization,  sterilization
equipments, Supply of sterile materials.
Manufacture of Sterile and Non-sterile Products:
Policy  making  of  manufacturable  items,  demand  and  costing,  personnel  requirements,
manufacturing practice, Master formula Card, production control, Manufacturing records.
Drug Information Services:
Sources'  of  Information  on  drugs,  disease,  treatment  schedules,  procurement  of  information,
Computerized  services  (e.g.,  MEDLINE),  Retrieval  of  information,  Medication  error-  types  of
medication errors, correction and reporting.
Records and Reports:
Prescription filling,  drug  profile,  patient medication profile, cases on  drug  interaction and adverse
reactions,  idiosyncratic  cases.  Pharmacoeconomics:  Introduction  to pharmacoeconomics,  different
methods  of  pharmacoeconomics,  application  of  pharmacoeconomics.  Pharmacoepidemiology:
Definition  and  scope,  method  to  conduct  pharmacoepidemiological  studies,  advantages  &
disadvantages of pharmacoepidemiological studies.
Nuclear Pharmacy:
Methods of handling radioisotopes, radioisotope committee.
Importance of unit operations in manufacturing; Stoichiometry:
Unit  processes  material  and  energy  balances,  molecular  units,  mole fraction,  tie  substance,  gas
laws, mole volume, primary and  secondary quantities, equilibrium state, rate  process, steady and
unsteady states, dimensionless equations, dimensionless formulae, dimensionless groups, different
types of graphic representation, mathematical problems.
Fluid Flow:
Types of flow, Reynold's number, Viscosity, Concept of boundary layer, basic equations of fluid flow,
valves, flow meters, manometers and measurement of flow and pressure.
Heat transfer:
Concept  of  heat  flow,  applications  of  Fourier’s  law,  forced  and  natural  convection,  surface
coefficients,  boiling  liquids,  condensing  vapors,  heat  exchangers,  heat  interchangers,  radiation,
black body, Stefan Boltzmann equation, Kirchoff’s law.
Evaporation:
Basic concept of phase equilibria, factor affecting evaporation, evaporators, film evaporators, single
effect and multiple effect evaporators, Mathematical problems on evaporation.
Distillation:
Roult's  law,  phase  diagrams,  volatility;  simple  steam  and  flash  distillations,  principles  of
rectification, Mc-Cabe Thiele method for calculations of number of theoretical plates, Azeotropic and
extractive distillation.
Drying:
Moisture  content  and  mechanism  of  drying,  rate  of  drying  and  time  of  drying  calculations;
classification  and  types  of  dryers,  dryers  used  in  pharmaceutical  industries  and  special  drying
methods.
Size Reduction:
Definition,  objectives  of  size  reduction,  mechanisms  of  size  reduction,  factors  affecting  size
reduction,  laws  governing energy  and power  requirements of a  mills  including  ball mill, hammer
mill,  fluid  energy  mill.  Size  separation:  Different  techniques  of  size  separation,  sieves,  sieve
shakers, sedimentation tank, cyclone separators, bag fillers etc.
Mixing:
Theory of mixing, solid-solid, solid-liquid and liquid-liquid mixing equipments.
Filtration and Centrifugation:
Theory of filtration, continuous and batch filters, filter aids, filter media, industrial filters including
filter press, rotary  filter,  edge  filter,  etc.  Factors  affecting  filtration,  filtration,  optimum  cleaning
cycle  in  batch  filters.  Principles  of  centrifugation,  industrial  centrifugal  filters,  and  centrifugal
sedimenters;
Crystallization:
Characteristics of crystals like-purity, size, shape, geometry, habit, forms size and factors affecting
them, Solubility curves and calculation of yields. Material and heat balances around Swenson Walker
Crystallizer.  Supersaturation,  theory  and  its  limitations,  Nucleation  mechanisms,  crystal  growth.
Study  of  various  types  of  Crystallizers,  tanks,  agitated  batch,  Swenson  Walker,  Single  vacuum,
circulating  magma  and  Krystal  Crystallizer,  Caking  of  crystals  and  its  prevention.  Numerical
problems on yields;
Dehumidification and Humidity Control:
Basic  concepts and  definition, wet bulb  and adiabatic  saturation temperatures, Hygrometric chart
and measurement of humidity, application of humidity measurement in pharmacy, equipments for
dehumidificat4ion operations;
Refrigeration and Air Conditioning:
Principle and applications of refrigeration and air conditioning;
Material of Construction :
General study of composition, corrosion, resistance, Properties and applications of the materials of
construction with special reference to stainless steel and glass.
Material Handling Systems:
Liquid  handling  -  Different  types  of  pumps,  Gas  handling-Various  types  of  fans,  blowers  and
compressors, Solid handling-Bins, Bunkers, Conveyers, Air transport.
Corrosion:
Classification, mechanism of corrosion, factors affecting, prevention and control.
Plant location:
Layout, utilities and services.
Industrial Hazards and Safety Precautions:
Mechanical, Chemical, Electrical, fire and dust hazards. Industrial dermatitis, Accident records etc.
Automated Process Control Systems:
Process  variables,  temperature,  pressure,  flow,  level  and  vacuum  and  their  measurements;
elements  of  automatic  process  control  and  introduction  to  automatic  process  control  systems;
elements of computer aided manufacturing (CAM). Reactors and fundamentals of reactors design for
chemical reactions.
Liquid Dosages Forms:
Introduction, types of additives used in formulations, vehicles, stabilizers, preservatives, suspending
agents,  emulsifying  agents,  solubilizers,  colors,  flavors  and  others,  manufacturing  packaging,
labeling, evaluation of clear liquids, suspensions and emulsions official in pharmacopoeia;
Semisolid Dosage Forms:
Definitions, types, mechanisms of drug penetration, factors influencing penetration, semisolid bases
and  their  selection.  General  formulation  of  semisolids,  clear  gels  manufacturing  procedure,
evaluation and packaging;
Suppositories:
Ideal  requirements,  bases,  displacement  value,  manufacturing  procedure,  packaging  and
evaluation;
Extraction and Galenical Products:
Principle and method of extraction, preparation of infusion, tinctures, dry and soft liquid extracts;
Blood Products and Plasma Substitutes:
Collection, processing and storage of whole human blood, concentrated human RBCs, dried human
plasma, human fibrinogen,  human  thrombin,  human  normal immunoglobulin,  human fibrin, foam
plasma substitutes, -ideal requirements, PVP, dextran etc. for control of blood pressure as per I.P.;
Pharmaceutical Aerosols:
Definition, propellants, general formulation, manufacturing' and packaging methods, pharmaceutical
applications;
Ophthalmic Preparations:
Requirements, formulation, methods of preparation, labeling, containers, evaluation;
Cosmeticology and Cosmetic Preparations:
Fundamentals  of  cosmetic  science,  structure  and  functions  of  skin  and  hair.  Formulation,
preparation and packaging of cosmetics for skin, hair, dentifrice and manicure preparations like nail
polish, nail polish remover, Lipsticks, eye lashes, baby care products etc.
Capsules:
Advantages  and  disadvantages  of  capsule  dosage  form,  material  for  production  of  hard  gelatin
capsules, size of capsules,  formulation,  method  of  capsule  filling,  soft gelatin,  capsule  shell  and
capsule content, importance of base absorption and minimum/gm factors in soft  capsules, quality
control, stability testing and storage of capsule dosage forms.
Micro-encapsulation:
Types  of  microcapsules,  importance  of  microencapsulation  in  pharmacy,  microencapsulation  by
phase  separation,  coacervation,  multi-orifice,  spray  drying,  spray  congealing,  polymerization
complex emulsion, air suspension technique, coating pan and other techniques, evaluation of micro
capsules.
Tablets:
Advantages and disadvantages  of tablets,  Application  of different types  of tablets,  Formulation of
different  types of tablets,  granulation,  technology on large-scale by various techniques,  different
types of tablet compression machinery and the equipments employed, evaluation of tablets. Coating
of Tablets: Types of coating, film forming materials, formulation of coating solution, equipments for
coating, coating process, evaluation of coated tablets. Stability kinetics and quality assurance.
Parenteral Products:
Pre-formulation factors, routes of administration, water for injection, and sterile water for injection,
pyrogenicity, non aqueous vehicles, isotonicity and methods of its adjustment, Formulation details,
Containers  and  closures  and selection,  labeling;  Pre-filling  treatment,  washing  of  containers  and
closures,  preparation  of solution  and suspensions,  filling and  closing  of  ampoules,  vials,  infusion
fluids, lyophilization & preparation  of sterile  powders,  equipment for large scale manufacture and
evaluation  of  parenteral  products;  Aseptic  Techniques-source  of  contamination  and  methods  of
prevention, Design of aseptic area, Laminar flow bench services and maintenance. Sterility testing
of pharmaceuticals.
Surgical products:
Definition,  primary  wound  dressing,  absorbents,  surgical  cotton,  surgical  gauzes  etc.,  bandages,
adhesive tape, protective cellulosic hemostastics, official dressings, absorbable and non-absorbable
sutures, ligatures and catguts.
Packaging of Pharmaceutical Products:
Packaging  components,  types,  specifications  and  methods  of  evaluation,  stability  aspects  of
packaging.  Packaging  equipments,  factors  influence  choice  of  containers,  legal  and  official
requirements for containers, package testing.
Designing of dosage forms; Pre-formulation studies:
Study  of  physical  properties  of  drug  like  physical  form,  particle  size,  shape,  density,  wetting,
dielectric  constant.  Solubility,  dissolution  and  organoleptic  properties  and  their  effect  on
formulation,  stability  and  bioavailability.  Study  of  chemical  properties  of  drugs  like  hydrolysis,
oxidation,  reduction,  racemization,  polymerization  etc.,  and  their  influence  on  formulation  and
stability of products. Study of pro-drugs in solving problems related to stability, bioavailability and
elegancy of formulations. Design, development and process validation methods for pharmaceutical
operations involved in the production of pharmaceutical products with special reference to tablets,
suspensions.  Stabilization  and  stability  testing  protocol  for various pharmaceutical  products.  ICH
Guidelines for stability testing of formulations.
Performance evaluation methods:
In-vitro  dissolution  studies  for  solid  dosage  forms  methods,  interpretation  of  dissolution  data.
Bioavailability  studies  and  bioavailability  testing  protocol  and  procedures.  In  vivo  methods  of
evaluation  and  statistical  treatment.  GMP  and  quality  assurance,  Quality  audit.  Design,
development, production and evaluation of controlled/sustained/extended release formulations.
Biopharmaceutics:
Passage of drugs across biological barrier (passive diffusion, active transport, facilitated  diffusion,
ion-pair  formation  and  pinocytosis);  Factors  influencing  absorption-  biological,  physico-chemical,
physiological and pharmaceutical; Drug distribution in the body, plasma protein binding.
Pharmacokinetics:
Significance  of  plasma  drug  concentration  measurement.  Compartment  model-  Definition  and
Scope. Pharmacokinetics of drug absorption - Zero order and first order absorption rate constant
using  Wagner-Nelson  and  residual  methods.  Volume  of  distribution  and  distribution  coefficient.
Compartment  kinetics-  One  compartment  and  two  compartment  models.  Determination  of
pharmacokinetic parameters from plasma and urine data after drug administration by intravascular
and oral route. Clearance concept, mechanism of renal clearance, clearance ratio, determination of
renal clearance. Extraction ratio, hepatic clearance, biliary excretion, extra-hepatic circulation. Non-
linear  pharmacokinetics  with  special  reference  to  one  compartment  model  after  I.V.  drug
administration.
Clinical Pharmacokinetics:
Definition and  scope:  Dosage  adjustment in  patients  with and  without renal and  hepatic failure;
Design  of  single  dose  bio-equivalence  study  and  relevant  statistics;  Pharmacokinetic  drug
interactions and their significance in combination therapy.
Bioavailability and bioequivalence:
Measures  of bioavailability, Cmax, tmax,  Keli  and  Area Under the Curve  (AUC); Design of single
dose bioequivalence study and relevant statistics; Review of regulatory requirements for conducting
bioequivalent studies. Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) of drugs.


PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY


Importance of inorganic compounds in pharmacy and medicine;
An  outline  of  methods  of  preparation, uses,  sources  of  impurities,  tests  for  purity  and  identity,
including limit tests for iron, arsenic, lead, heavy metals, chloride, sulphate and special tests if any,
of the following classes of inorganic pharmaceuticals included in Indian Pharmacopoeia:
Gastrointestinal Agents:
Acidifying agents, Antacids, Protectives and Adsorbents, Cathartics;
Major Intra- and Extra-cellular Electrolytes:
Physiological  ions.  Electrolytes  used  for  replacement  therapy,  acid-base balance  and  combination
therapy;
Essential and Trace Elements:
Transition  elements  and  their  compounds  of  pharmaceutical  importance,  Iron  and  haematinics,
mineral  supplements;  Cationic  and  anionic  components  of  inorganic  drugs  useful  for  systemic
effects;
Topical Agents:
Protectives, Astringents and Anti-infectives;
Gases and Vapors:
Oxygen, Anesthetics (inorganic) and Respiratory stimulants;
Dental Products:
Dentifrices, Anti-caries agents; Complexing and chelating agents used in therapy;
Miscellaneous Agents:
Sclerosing agents, Expectorants, Emetics, Inorganic poisons and antidotes.
Pharmaceutical Aids Used in Pharmaceutical Industry:
Anti-oxidants,  Preservatives,  Filter  aids,  Adsorbents,  Diluents,  Excipients,  Suspending  agents,
Colorants;
Acids, Bases and Buffers:
Buffer  equations  and  buffer  capacity  in  general,  buffers  in  pharmaceutical  systems,  preparation,
stability,  buffered  isotonic  solutions,  measurements  of  tonicity,  calculations  and  methods  of
adjusting isotonicity. Water;
Inorganic Radiopharmaceuticals:
Nuclear  reaction,  radioisotopes,  radiopharmaceuticals,  Nomenclature,  Methods  of  obtaining  their
standards  and  units  of  activity,  half-life,  measurement  of  activity,  clinical  applications,  dosage,
hazards and precautions.
Importance of basic fundamentals of physical chemistry in pharmacy; Behaviour of Gases:
Kinetic theory of gases, deviation from ideal behavior and explanation;
The Liquid State:
Physical properties (surface tension, parachor, viscosity, refractive index, dipole moment);
Solutions:
Ideal  and  real  solutions,  solutions  of  gases in  liquids,  colligative  properties,  partition coefficient,
conductance and its measurement, Debye Huckel theory;
Thermodynamics:
First, Second and Third laws, Zeroth law, Concept of free energy, enthalpy and entropy, absolute
temperature scale;
 
Thermochemical equations; Phase rule; Adsorption:
Freudlich and Gibbs adsorption, isotherms, Langmuir’s theory of adsorption;
Photochemistry:
Consequences of light absorption, Jabolenski diagram, Quantum efficiency;
Chemical Kinetics:
Zero,  First  and  Second  order  reactions,  complex  reactions,  theories  of  reaction  kinetics,
characteristics of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis, acid base and enzyme catalysis;
Quantum Mechanics :
Postulates  of  quantum  mechanics,  operators  in  quantum  mechanics,  the  Schrodinger  wave
equation.
Importance of fundamentals of organic chemistry in pharmaceutical sciences; Structure and
Properties:
Atomic  structure,  Atomic  orbitals,  Molecular  orbital  theory,  wave  equation,  Molecular  orbitals,
Bonding  and  Anti-bonding  orbitals,  Covalent  bond,  Hybrid  orbitals,  Intramolecular  forces,  Bond
dissociation  energy,  Polarity  of  bonds,  Polarity  of  molecules,  Structure  and  physical  properties,
Intermolecular forces, Acids and bases;
Stereochemistry:
Nomenclature, isomerism, stereoisomerism,  conformational  and configurational  isomerism, optical
activity, specification of configuration, Reactions involving stereoisomers, chirality, conformations;
Stereoselective and stereospecific reactions; Structure, Nomenclature, Preparation and Reactions
of: Alkanes,  Alkenes,  Alkynes,  Cyclic  analogs,  Dienes,  Benzene,  Polynuclear  aromatic  compounds,
Arenes,  Alkyl  halides,  Alcohols,  Ethers,  Epoxides,  Amines,  Phenols,  Aldehydes  and  ketones,
Carboxylic acids, Functional derivatives  of' carboxylic acids, a,ß-Unsaturated carbonyl compounds,
Reactive intermediates- carbocations, carbanions, carbenes and nitrenes;
Nucleophilic and Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions:
Reactivity and orientation;
Electrophilic and Nucleophilic Addition Reactions; Rearrangements
(Beckman, Hoffman, Benzilic acid, pinacole-pinacolone and Beyer-Villiger);
Elimination reactions; Conservation of Orbital Symmetry and Rules:
Electrocyclic, Cycloaddition and Sigmatropic reactions;
Neighboring group effects; Catalysis by transition metal complexes; Heterocyclic Compounds:
Nomenclature, preparation, properties and reactions of 3, 4, 5, 6 & 7-membered heterocycles with
one or two heteroatoms like 0, N, S. Chemistry of lipids, Carbohydrates and Proteins.
Biochemistry in pharmaceutical sciences; The concept of free energy:
Determination  of  change  in  free  energy  -  from  equilibrium  constant  and  reduction  potential,
bioenergetics, production of ATP and its biological significance;
Enzymes:
Nomenclature, enzyme kinetics and their  mechanism of action, mechanism  of inhibition, enzymes
and iso-enzymes in clinical diagnosis;
Co-enzymes:
Vitamins  as  co-enzymes  and  their  significance.  Metals  as  cofactors  and  their  significance;
Carbohydrate  Metabolism:  Conversion  of  polysaccharides  to  glucose-1-phosphate,  Glycolysis,
fermentation and their regulation, Gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, Metabolism of galactose and
galactosemia, Role of sugar nucleotides in biosynthesis, and Pentose phosphate pathway;
The Citric Acid Cycle:
Significance, reactions and energetics of the cycle, Amphibolic role of the cycle, and Glyoxalic acid
cycle;
Lipids Metabolism :
Oxidation of fatty acids, ß-oxidation & energetics, biosynthesis of ketone bodies and their utilization,
biosynthesis of saturated and  unsaturated fatty  acids, Control  of lipid metabolism, Essential fatty
acids  &  eicosanoids  (prostaglandins,  thromboxanes  and  leukotrienes),  phospholipids,  and
sphingolipids,  Biosynthesis  of  eicosanoids,  cholesterol,  androgens,  progesterone,  estrogens
corticosteroids and bile acids;
Biological Oxidation:
Redox-potential,  enzymes  and  co-enzymes  involved  in  oxidation  reduction  &  its  control,  The
respiratory chain, its role in energy capture and its control, energetics of oxidative phosphorylation.
Inhibitors  of  respiratory  chain  and  oxidative  phosphorylation,  Mechanism  of  oxidative
phosphorylation;
Metabolism of ammonia and nitrogen containing monomers:
Nitrogen  balance,  Biosynthesis  of  amino  acids,  Catabolism  of amino  acids,  Conversion  of  amino
acids to  specialized  products,  Assimilation  of  ammonia, Urea. cycle,  metabolic  disorders  of  urea
cycle, Metabolism of sulphur containing amino acids;
Purine biosynthesis:
Purine nucleotide inter-conversions;
Pyrimidine biosynthesis:
and formation of deoxyribounucleotides;
Biosynthesis of Nucleic Acids:
Brief introduction of genetic organization of the mammalian genome, alteration and rearrangements
of genetic material, Biosynthesis of DNA and its replications;
Mutation:
Physical & chemical mutagenesis/carcinogenesis, DNA repair mechanism. Biosynthesis of RNA;
Genetic Code and Protein Synthesis:
Genetic code, Components of protein synthesis and Inhibition of protein synthesis.
Basic Principles of Medicinal Chemistry:
Physico-chemical and stereoisomeric (Optical, geometrical) aspects of drug molecules and biological
action, Bioisosterism, Drug-receptor interactions including transduction mechanisms;
Drug metabolism and Concept of Prodrugs; Principles of Drug Design (Theoretical Aspects):
Traditional  analog and mechanism based approaches, QSAR  approaches, Applications of quantum
mechanics, Computer Aided Drug Designing (CADD) and molecular modeling;
Synthetic Procedures, Mode of Action, Uses, Structure Activity Relationships including
Physicochemical Properties of the Following Classes of Drugs:
Drugs  acting  at  synaptic  and  neuro-effector  junction  sites:  Cholinergics,  anti-cholinergics  and
cholinesterase inhibitors, Adrenergic drugs, Antispasmodic and anti-ulcer drugs, Local Anesthetics,
Neuromuscular blocking agents;
Autacoids:
Antihistamines, Eicosanoids, Analgesic-antipyretics, Anti-inflammatory (non-steroidal) agents.
Steroidal Drugs:
Steroidal  nomenclature  (IUPAC) and  stereochemistry,  Androgens  and anabolic  agents,  Estrogens
and Progestational agents, Oral contraceptives, Adrenocorticoids;
Drugs acting on the central nervous system:
General  Anesthetics,  Hypnotics  and  Sedatives,  Anticonvulsants,  Anti-Parkinsonian  drugs,
Psychopharmacological agents (Neuroleptics, Anti-depressants, Anxiolytics), Opioid analgesics, Anti-
tussives, CNS stimulants;
Diuretics; Cardiovascular drugs:
Anti-hypertensives,  Anti-arrythmic  agents,  anti-anginal  agents,  Cardiotonics,  Anti-hyperlipedemic
agents, Anticoagulants and Anti-platelet drugs;
Thyroid and Anti thyroid drugs; Insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents;
Chemotherapeutic Agents used in bacterial, fungal, viral, protozoal,  parasitic and other infections,
Antibiotics:  ß-Lactam,  macrolides,  tetracyclines,  aminoglycosides,  polypeptide  antibiotics,
fluoroquinolones,
Anti-metabolites (including sulfonamides); Anti-neoplastic agents; Anti-viral agents (including anti–HIV);
Immunosuppressives and immunostimulants; Diagnostic agents; Pharmaceutical Aids; Microbial
Transformations:
Introduction,  types  of  reactions  mediated  by  micro-organisms,  design  of  biotransformation
processes,  selection  of  organisms,  biotransformation  process  and  its  improvements  with  special
reference to steroids;
Enzyme Immobilization:
Techniques  of  immobilization,  factors  affecting  enzyme  kinetics,  Study  of  enzymes  such  as
hyaluronidase, penicillinase, streptokinase, amylases and proteases, Immobilization of bacteria and
plant cells.
Different techniques of pharmaceutical analysis, Preliminaries and definitions:
Significant figures, Rules for retaining significant digits, Types of errors, Mean deviation, Standard
deviation, Statistical treatment of small data sets, Selection of sample, Precision and accuracy,
Fundamentals of volumetric analysis:
methods of expressing concentration, primary and secondary standards:
Acid Base Titrations:
Acid base concepts, Role of solvents, Relative strengths of acids and bases, Ionization, Law of mass
action, Common ion effect, Ionic product of water, pH, Hydrolysis of salts, Henderson-Hasselbach
equation, Buffer solutions, Neutralization curves, Acid-base indicators, Theory of indicators, Choice
of indicators, Mixed indicators, Polyprotic systems, Polyamine and amino acid systems, Amino acid
titrations;
Oxidation Reduction Titrations:
Concepts of oxidation and reduction, Redox reactions, Strengths and equivalent weights of oxidizing
and  reducing  agents,  Theory  of  redox  titrations,  Redox  indicators,  Cell  representations,
Measurement  of  electrode  potential,  Oxidation-reduction  curves,  Iodimetry  and  Iodometry,
Titrations  involving  cerric  ammonium sulphate,  potassium  iodate,  potassium  bromate, potassium
permanganate; titanous chloride, stannous chloride and Sodium 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol;
Precipitation Titrations:
Precipitation  reactions,  Solubility  product,  Effect  of  acids,  temperature  and  solvent  upon  the
solubility of a precipitate, Argentometric titrations and titrations involving ammonium or potassium
thiocyanate, mercuric nitrate, and barium sulphate, indicators, Methods of end point determination
(GayLussac method, Mohr’s method, Volhard's method and Fajan's method).
Gravimetric Analysis:
Precipitation  techniques,  The  colloidal  state,  Supersaturation,  Co-precipitation,  Post-precipitation,
Digestion,  washing  of  the  precipitate,  Filtration,  Filter  papers  and  crucibles,  Ignition,
Thermogravimetric curves, Specific examples like barium sulphate, aluminium as aluminium oxide,
calcium as calcium oxalate and magnesium as magnesium pyrophosphate, Organic precipitants;
Non-aqueous titrations:
Acidic and basic drugs, Solvents used, Indicators;
Complexometric titrations;
Complexing agents used as titrants, Indicators, Masking and demasking;
Miscellaneous Methods of Analysis:
Diazotization  titrations, Kjeldahl  method  of  nitrogen  estimation, Karl-Fischer  aquametry,  Oxygen
flask combustion method, Gasometry;
Extraction procedures including separation of drugs from excipients; Potentiometry:
Standard redox  potential, Nernst  equation, Half-cell potential,  Standard and indicating electrodes,
potentiometric titrations;
Conductometry:
Specific and equivalent conductance, conductometric titrations;
Coulometry:
Coulomb’s law, Coulometric titrations at fixed potential/current;
Polarography:
Decomposition  potential,  Half-wave  potential,  Diffision/migration/migration  current,  Ilkovic
equation,  Cathodic/anodic polarography, Dropping  mercury electrode, Graphite electrode, Organic
polarography;
Amperometry:
Rotating platinum electrode, Amperometric titrations;
Chromatography:
Theory of chromatography, plate theory, Factors affecting resolution,  van Deemter  equation, The
following  chromatographic  techniques  (including  instrumentation)  with  relevant  examples  of
Pharmacopoeial  products:  TLC,  HPLC,  GLC,  HPTLC,  Paper  Chromatography  and  Column
Chromatography;
The Theoretical Aspects, Basic Instrumentation, Elements of Interpretation of Spectra, and
Applications (quantitative and qualitative) of the Following Analytical Techniques:
Ultraviolet  and  visible  spectrophotometry,  Fluorimetry,  Infrared  spectrophotometry,  Nuclear
Magnetic  Resonance spectroscopy, Mass  Spectrometry (EI  & CI only),  Flame  Photometry,  Atomic
Absorption Spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction Analysis, Radioimmunoassay.
Quality assurance:
GLP, ISO 9000,  TQM,  Quality  Review  and  Quality  documentation,  Regulatory  control,  regulatory
drug  analysis,  interpretation  of  analytical  data,  Validation,  quality  audit:  quality  of  equipment,
validation of equipment, validation of analytical procedures.


PHARMACOLOGY


Pathophysiology of common diseases; Basic Principles of Cell Injury and Adaptations:
Causes of Cellular injury, pathogenesis, morphology of cell injury, adaptations and cell death.
Basic Mechanisms involved in the process of inflammation and repair:
Vascular  and  cellular  events  of  acute  inflammation,  chemical  mediators  of  inflammation,
pathogenesis of chronic inflammation, brief outline of the process of repair.
Immunopathophysiology:
T  and  B  cells,  MHC  proteins,  antigen  presenting  cells,  immune  tolerance,  pathogenesis  of
hypersensitivity reactions, autoimmune diseases, AIDS, Amyloidosis.
Pathophysiology of Common Diseases:
Asthma, diabetes,  rheumatoid  arthritis,  gout,  ulcerative colitis,  neoplasia,  psychosis,  depression,
mania,  epilepsy,  acute  and  chronic  renal  failure,  hypertension,  angina,  congestive  heart  failure,
atherosclerosis,  myocardial  infarction,  congestive  heart  failure,  peptic  ulcer,  anemias,  hepatic
disorders,  tuberculosis,  urinary  tract  infections  and  sexually  transmitted  diseases.  Wherever
applicable the molecular basis should be discussed.
Fundamentals of general pharmacology:
Dosage forms and routes of administration, mechanism of action, combined effect of drugs, factors
modifying drug action, tolerance and dependence; Pharmacogenetics; Principles of Basic and Clinical
pharmacokinetics,  absorption,  Distribution,  Metabolism  and  Excretion  of  drugs,  Adverse  Drug
Reactions;  Bioassay  of  Drugs and  Biological  Standardization; Discovery  and  development  of  new
drugs, Bioavailability and bioequivalence studies;
Pharmacology of Peripheral Nervous System:
Neurohumoral transmission (autonomic and somatic), Parasympathomimetics, Parasympatholytics,
Sympathomimetics,  Adrenergic  receptor  and  neuron  blocking  agents,  Ganglion  stimulants  and
blocking agents, Neuromuscular blocking Agents, Local anesthetic Agents.
Pharmacology of Central Nervous System:
Neurohumoral transmission in the C.N.S., General Anesthetics, Alcohols and disulfiram, Sedatives,
Hypnotics,  Anti-anxiety  agents  and  Centrally  acting  muscle  relaxants,  Psychopharmacological
agents  (anti-psychotics),  anti-maniacs  and  hallucinogens,  Antidepressants,  Anti-epileptics  drugs,
Anti-Parkinsonian  drugs,  Analgesics,  Antipyretics,  Narcotic  analgesics  and  antagonists,  C.N.S.
stimulants, Drug Addiction and Drug Abuse.
Pharmacology of Cardiovascular System:
Drugs used in the management of congestive cardiac failure, Antihypertensive drugs, Anti-anginal
and Vasodilator  drugs, including  calcium  channel blockers  and beta  adrenergic antagonists, Anti-
arrhythmic drugs, Anti-hyperlipedemic drugs, Drugs used in the therapy of shock.
Drugs Acting on the Hemopoietic System:
Hematinics, Anticoagulants, Vitamin K and hemostatic agents, Fibrinolytic and anti-platelet drugs,
Blood and plasma volume expanders.
Drugs acting on urinary system:
Fluid and electrolyte balance, Diuretics.
Autacoids:
Histamine, Antihistaminic drugs, 5-HT- its agonists and antagonists, Prostaglandins, thromboxanes
and  leukotrienes,  Angiotensin,  Bradykinin  and  Substance  P  and  other  vasoactive  peptides,  non-
steroidal anti-inflammatory and anti-gout agents.
Drugs Acting on the Respiratory System:
Anti-asthmatic  drugs  including  bronchodilators,  Anti-tussives  and  expectorants,  Respiratory
stimulants.
Drugs acting on the Gastrointestinal Tract:
Antacids,  Anti-secretory  and  Anti-ulcer  drugs,  Laxatives  and  anti-diarrhoeal  drugs,  Appetite
Stimulants and Suppressants, Emetics and anti-emetics, Miscellaneous: Carminatives, demulcents,
protectives, adsorbents, astringents, digestants, enzymes and mucolytics.
Pharmacology of Endocrine System:
Hypothalamic  and  pituitary  hormones,  Thyroid  hormones and  anti  thyroid  drugs,  parathormone,
calcitonin  and  Vitamin  D,  Insulin,  glucagons,  incretins,  oral  hypoglycemic  agents  and  insulin
analogs, ACTH  and corticosteroids, Androgens and anabolic steroids, Estrogens, progesterone and
oral contraceptives, Drugs acting on the uterus.
Chemotherapy:
General  Principles  of  Chemotherapy,  Bacterial  resistance;  Sulfonamides  and  cotrimoxazole,
Antibiotics-  Penicillins,  Cephalosporins,  Aminoglycosides,  Chloramphenicol,  Macrolides,
Tetracyclines,  Quinolones,  fluoroquinolones  and  Miscellaneous  antibiotics;  Chemotherapy  of
tuberculosis,  leprosy,  fungal  diseases,  viral  diseases,  HIV  and  AIDS,  urinary  tract  infections  and
sexually  transmitted  diseases,  malaria,  amoebiasis  and  other  protozoal  infections  and
Anthelmentics. Chemotherapy of malignancy and immunosuppressive agents.
Principles of Toxicology:
Definition  of  poison,  general  principles  of  treatment  of  poisoning  with  particular  reference  to
barbiturates,  opioids, organophosphorous  and  atropine  poisoning,  Heavy metals  and heavy metal
antagonists.
Basic Concepts of Pharmacotherapy:
Clinical  Pharmacokinetics and  individualization  of  Drug  therapy,  Drug  delivery  systems  and their
Biopharmaceutic & Therapeutic considerations, Drugs used during infancy and in the elderly persons
(Pediatrics & Geriatrics), Drugs used during pregnancy, Drug induced diseases, The basics of drug
interactions,  General  principles  of  clinical  toxicology,  Common  clinical  laboratory  tests  and  their
interpretation;
Important Disorders of Organs, Systems and their Management:
Cardio-vascular  disorders-  Hypertension,  Congestive  heart  failure,  Angina,  Acute  myocardial
infarction, Cardiac arrhythmias.
CNS Disorders:
Epilepsy, Parkinsonism, Schizophrenia,
Depression Respiratory disease-
Asthma.
Gastrointestinal Disorders-
Peptic ulcer, Ulcerative colitis, Hepatitis, Cirrhosis.
Endocrine Disorders-
Diabetes mellitus and Thyroid disorders.
Infectious Diseases-
Tuberculosis, Urinary tract infections, Enteric infections, Upper respiratory infections. Hematopoietic
Disorders- Anemias,
Joint and Connective tissue disorders-
Rheumatic diseases, Gout and Hyperuricemia.
Neoplastic Diseases-
Acute Leukaemias, Hodgkin's disease. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, Concept of Essential Drugs and
Rational Drug use.


PHARMACOGNOSY


Sources of Drugs:
Biological, marine, mineral and plant tissue cultures as sources of drugs;
Classification of Drugs:
Morphological, taxonomical, chemical and pharmacological classification of drugs;
Study of medicinally important plants belonging to the families with special reference to:
Apocynacae,  Solanaceae,  Rutacease, Umbelliferae,  Leguminosae,  Rubiaceae, Liliaceae, Graminae,
Labiatae, Cruciferae, Papaveraceae;
Cultivation, Collection, Processing and Storage of Crude Drugs:
Factors influencing cultivation of medicinal plants, Types of soils and fertilizers of common use. Pest
management  and natural pest control agents,  Plant  hormones  and their  applications,  Polyploidy,
mutation and hybridization with reference to medicinal plants.
Quality Control of Crude Drugs:
Adulteration of crude drugs and their detection by organoleptic, microscopic, physical, chemical and
biological methods and properties.
Introduction to Active Constituents of Drugs:
Their isolation, classification and properties.
 
Systematic pharmacognostic study of the followings:
CARBOHYDRATES and derived products:
agar, guar gum acacia, Honey, Isabagol, pectin, Starch, sterculia and Tragacanth;
Lipids:
Bees wax, Castor oil, Cocoa butter, Codliver oil, Hydnocarpus oil, Kokum butter, Lard, Linseed oil,
Rice, Bran oil, Shark liver oil and Wool fat;
RESINS:
Study  of  Drugs  Containing  Resins  and  Resin  Combinations  like  Colophony,  podophyllum,  jalap,
cannabis, capsicum, myrrh, asafoetida, balsam of Tolu, balsam of Peru, benzoin, turmeric, ginger;
TANNINS:
Study of tannins and tannin containing drugs like Gambier, black catechu, gall and myrobalan;
VOLATILE OILS:
General methods of obtaining volatile oils from plants, Study of volatile oils of Mentha, Coriander,
Cinnamon,  Cassia,  Lemon peel,  Orange peel,  Lemon  grass, Citronella,  Caraway, Dill, Spearmint,
Clove,  Fennel,  Nutmeg,  Eucalyptus,  Chenopodium,  Cardamom,  Valerian,  Musk,  Palmarosa,
Gaultheria, Sandal wood;
Phytochemical Screening:
Preparation  of  extracts,  Screening  of  alkaloids,  saponins,  cardenolides  and  bufadienolides,
flavonoids  and  leucoanthocyanidins,  tannins  and  polyphenols,  anthraquinones,  cynogenetic
glycosides, amino acids in plant extracts;
FIBERS:
Study  of  fibers  used  in  pharmacy  such  as  cotton,  silk,  wool,  nylon,  glass-wool,  polyester  and
asbestos.
Study of the biological sources, cultivation, collection, commercial varieties, chemical
constituents, substitutes, adulterants, uses, diagnostic macroscopic and microscopic features
and specific chemical tests of following groups of drugs:
GLYCOSIDE CONTAINING DRUGS:
Saponins :
Liquorice, ginseng, dioscorea, sarsaparilla, and senega.
Cardioactive glycosides:
Digitalis, squill, strophanthus and thevetia,
Anthraquinone cathartics:
Aloe, senna, rhubarb and cascara,
Others:
Psoralea, Ammi majus, Ammi visnaga, gentian, saffron, chirata, quassia.
ALKALOID CONTAINING DRUGS:
Pyridine-piperidine:
Tobacco, areca and lobelia.
Tropane:
Belladonna, hyoscyamus, datura, duboisia, coca and withania.
Quinoline and Isoquinoline:
Cinchona, ipecac, opium.
Indole:
Ergot, rauwolfia, catharanthus, nux-vomica and physostigma.
Imidazole:
Pilocarpus.
Steroidal:
Veratrum and kurchi.
Alkaloidal Amine:
Ephedra and colchicum.
Glycoalkaloid:
Solanum.
Purines:
Coffee, tea and cola. Biological  sources, preparation, identification tests  and uses of the following
enzymes: Diastase, papain, pepsin, trypsin, pancreatin.
Studies of Traditional Drugs:
Common vernacular  names, botanical sources, morphology, chemical nature of chief constituents,
pharmacology,  categories  and  common  uses  and  marketed  formulations  of  following  indigenous
drugs:  Amla,  Kantkari,  Satavari,  Tylophora,  Bhilawa,  Kalijiri,  Bach,  Rasna,  Punamava,  Chitrack,
Apamarg, Gokhru, Shankhapushpi, Brahmi, Adusa, Atjuna, Ashoka, Methi, Lahsun, Palash, Guggal,
Gymnema, Shilajit, Nagarmotha and Neem. The holistic concept of drug administration in traditional
systems of medicine.  Introduction to ayurvedic preparations like Arishtas, Asvas,  Gutikas, Tailas,
Chumas, Lehyas and Bhasmas.
General Techniques of Biosynthetic Studies and Basic Metabolic Pathways/Biogenesis:
Brief introduction to biogenesis of secondary metabolites of pharmaceutical importance.
Terpenes:
monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, and triterpenoids.
Carotenoids:
a-carotenoids, ß-carotenes, vitamin A, Xanthophylls of medicinal importance.
Glycosides:
Digitoxin, digoxin, hecogenin, sennosides, diosgenin and sarasapogenin.
Alkaloids:
Atropine and related compounds, Quinine, Reserpine, Morphine, Papaverine, Ephedrine, Ergot and
Vinca alkaloids.
Lignans, quassanoids and flavonoids. Role of plant-based drugs on National economy:
A brief account of plant based industries and institutions involved in work on medicinal and aromatic
plants in India. Utilization and production of phyto-constituents such as quinine, calcium sennosides,
podophyllotoxin,  diosgenin,  solasodine,  and  tropane  alkaloids.  Utilization  of  aromatic  plants  and
derived products with special reference to sandalwood oil, mentha oil, lemon grass oil, vetiver oil,
geranium  oil and  eucalyptus oil.  World-wide  trade  in  medicinal  plants  and  derived products  with
special reference to diosgenin (disocorea),  taxol (Taxus  sps) digitalis, tropane  alkaloid  containing
plants, Papain, cinchona, Ipecac, Liquorice, Ginseng, Aloe, Valerian, Rauwolfia and plants containing
laxatives. Plant bitters and sweeteners.
Plant Tissue Culture:
Historical  development of plant tissue culture, types  of cultures,  nutritional  requirements, growth
and their maintenance. Applications of plant tissue culture in pharmacognosy.
Marine pharmacognosy:
Novel medicinal agents from marine sources.
Natural allergens and photosensitizing agents and fungal toxins. Herbs as health foods. Herbal
cosmetics. Standardization and quality control of herbal drugs, WHO guidelines for the
standardization of herbal drugs.
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